American Psychological Association

In-text citations

  • Brief and appear among the sentences you write in your paper
  • When you rephrase in your own words
Public and private interactions are vital in an online class (the authors' names, the year the article was published).

E.g., Public and private interactions are vital in an online class (Blair & Hoy, 2006).
  • In the back of your paper, in the References list, there will be a corresponding citation beginning with the authors' names, Blair and Hoy, and the year their article was published, 2006.
  • When you are using the exact words from the article (a direct quotation)
"The workplace is as able to prepare someone for success in the academy as the academy is able to prepare someone to enter the workforce" (the authors' names, the year the article was published, page number).

E.g., "The workplace is as able to prepare someone for success in the academy as the academy is able to prepare someone to enter the workforce" (Blair & Hoy, 2006, p. 35).
  • Clearly lead to the corresponding citation in the References list at the back of your paper.

Reference citations

  • Longer and will appear at the back of your paper, in your References list
  • Reference Citations: Article with DOI
The authors' names. (year the article was published). title of the article. journal, volume, issue and page numbers. DOI number for the article

E.g., Blair, K., & Hoy, C. (2006). Paying attention to adult learning online: The pedagogy and politics of community. Computers and Composition, 23(1), 32-48. doi:10.1016/j.compcom.2005.12.006
  • The DOI number, or Digital Object Identifier, is a unique identifying number for the article. Many articles that you find in library databases will have a DOI number.
  • The following format for DOI numbers are acceptable (beginning with http:)
E.g., Blair, K., & Hoy, C. (2006). Paying attention to adult learning online: The pedagogy and politics of community. Computers and Composition, 23(1), 32-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.11.006
  • In the article you are citing does not have a DOI number, then you should finish your citation with “Retrieved from” followed by the URL of the journal homepage.
E.g., Bai, H. (2009). Facilitating student's critical thinking in online discussion: An instructor's experience. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 8(2), 156-164. Retrieved from http://www.ncolr.org/jiol/

References

APA Tips

  • Do not include the name of the journal in your citation

Huout, O'Neill, and Moore (2010) wrote in the journal, College English, that...
In College English, Huout, O'Neill, and Moore (2010) argued that...

  • Do not include the title of the article unless needed

Huout, O'Neill, and Moore (2010) wrote in the article, '"A Usable Past for Writing Assessment," that...
In 'the article "A Usable Past for Writing Assessment," Huout, O'Neill, and Moore (2010) argued that...
You would include the title of the article if no author is identified or if the author is anonymous.

  • When you quote a source, give the
    • author
    • year
    • page (or paragraph number for a source that does not have pages)
  • If the quotation occurs within the sentence,
    • cite the source using parentheses right after the ending quotation marks
    • then continue with the sentence
  • For quotations that end a sentence
    • end the passage with closing quotation marks
    • cite the source in parentheses
    • end with a period or other punctuation mark
  • For quotations 40 or more words
    • place it in a block of text
    • do not use quotation marks
    • indent the block of text 1/2 inch from the left margin
  • For quotations of online material without page numbers, provide the
    • author
    • year
    • paragraph number (using the abbreviation para.)
  • For quotations of online material without page numbers but with section headings, provide the
    • author
    • year
    • title of the section heading
    • paragraph number (using the abbreviation para.)

Helpful Tips in Citing Sources

  • Integrating sources with one author
    • Sipple (2007) found that...
    • Students prefer audio commentary... (Sipple, 2007).
    • In 2007, Sipple's study showed that...
  • One work by one author
    • Sipple (2007) found that..., Sipple also found that... (Sipple, 2007).
  • If a work has two authors
    • Cite both author's names every time you cite the source
    • Make sure you use & or and correctly
      • ...as Cavanaugh and Song (2014) indicated...
      • ...as has been demonstrated (Cavanaugh & Song, 2014)
  • If a work has three, four, or five authors
    • cite each author's name the first time you cite the source.
    • If you cite the source again, use only
      • the first author's name
      • et al.
    • If you cite the source again, but in a different paragraph, use only
      • the first author's name
      • et al.
      • the year
  • If a work has six or more authors
    • cite the last name of the first author followed by et al.
    • the year
      • The year should be cited every time you cite this source, no matter whether you are citing the source in a new paragraph or not.

When you list the source in your References Page, you will include all of the authors of the paper.

  • If you have two authors with the same last name,
    • Include the author's first initial whenever you cite the source, even if the year of publication is different between the two authors.
  • If the source does not identify an author or has an anonymous author,
    • Cite the text using the first few words of the reference entry.
    • When a reader sees your citation in parentheses, the reader should be able to look up the references entry without any confusion.

The reader of your paper should be able to look up any source you cite in your paper by looking for the same words in your References list.


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Last-modified: 2016-10-30 (日) 19:01:16 (625d)